A detailed design on squared paper, demonstrating to the weavers which colors to select for each knot. These designs are especially useful for rugs made by groups of people.

A design element with a date or inscription in a rug.

Carved Nap
Commonly seen in some Chinese and Tibet rugs, carved nap is a method of carving around a symbol to improve the look of the rug.

Catechu Dye
Was commonly used in Indian rugs. The brown dyes are derived from an Asian tree with spikes of yellow flowers.

Refers to the different settings in which handmade rugs are produced. Handmade rugs are generally woven in the settings of Nomadic, Village, Workshop or Master workshop.

Caucasus Area Rug
Area in the south of Russia bordered by the Black and Caspian seas. Caucasian rugs are known for their bright lively colors and geometric designs. The rugs are commonly woven on a full wool foundation or on wool warps with cotton wefts.

China Area Rug
Country in East Asia, capital – Beijing. One of the largest exporters of handmade rugs in the world. China has been producing hand-knotted rugs for centuries, some of the early ones dating back to late 1600 hundreds. Chinese, Persian and French Aubusson designs are produced in Chinese workshops.

Chemical Dyes
Rugs woven after 1935, using modern synthetic dyes.

Chemical Wash
In order to improve the luster of the pile or soften the hues, chemical wash of lime, chlorine, or wood ash is applied to a rug.

Chenille Area Rug
Fabric often used in rugs, known for its luxurious pile.

Classical Area Rug
Elaborate rugs woven before the turn of the 19th century.

Cloud Band Area Rug
Frequently associated with Chinese rugs, also often appearing in Persian rugs, cloud band is a pattern which resembles a swirling band of clouds.

Derived from natural or synthetic dyes, color is one of the most important elements of the rug. All handmade rugs are recognized by their background border colors.

Color run
Bleeding of the dye into yarn of the surrounding area. This may occur because the dyed yarn has not been washed properly after the dyeing process or because the chemical dyes are not stable. Several chemical treatments exist, however, which can remove the bleeding.

Color Symbolism
Refers to the symbolic importance of color in the East. The traditional meaning of color can affect the choice of colors used in handmade rugs.

If a rug has colorfast dyes, the colors will not run when washed.

There are three conditions in the handmade rug industry—Fine, Average, and Worn, specifying the quality of the rug.

Contemporary Area Rug
Describes rugs which are less than 25 years old.

Soft fiber derived from cotton plants, one of the chief materials used in the foundation of handmade rugs.

Cross-woven Area Rug
Rugs made on Wilton loom. This technique allows the use of more colors as well as a more elaborate detail. Cross-woven rugs are done side to side as opposed to top to bottom.